Metabolic diseases are major health concern. How to prevent them?
Metabolic disorders disrupt the normal metabolism
(Web Desk) - Metabolic diseases consist of a broad range of conditions that affect the body's ability to process and convert food into energy.
These disorders disrupt the normal metabolism, which is the complex set of chemical reactions that maintain life and enable growth, repair, and reproduction.
Metabolism involves breaking down nutrients from our food to produce energy and building up and repairing our body. When this finely tuned system goes awry, metabolic diseases can emerge.
One of the most common metabolic disorders globally is diabetes, particularly Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is characterised by insulin resistance or a lack of insulin production. Other examples include obesity, Gaucher's disease, phenylketonuria (PKU), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), and hemochromatosis.
These conditions can manifest through various symptoms such as fatigue, weight fluctuations, and nausea.
In India, metabolic diseases pose a significant health threat due to their rising prevalence and the burden they place on public health systems.
Studies have suggested that in urban Indian populations, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome - a cluster of conditions including abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, high triglyceride levels, and low HDL cholesterol level - was found to be approximately 25%.
This syndrome greatly increases the risk of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.
Dr Vikramjeet Singh, Senior Consultant, Internal Medicine, Aakash Healthcare, New Delhi, told IndiaToday.In, "The cause behind metabolic disease is not always clear as it can stem from different factors.
Lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity, play important roles in their development. Genetics also have a significant part in affecting how our bodies process energy. Additionally, problems with organs are also a factor."
How to prevent metabolic diseases?
With ischaemic heart disease and type 2 diabetes among the leading causes of death in India, addressing metabolic syndrome becomes crucial for reducing mortality rates associated with these conditions.
To combat the threat of metabolic diseases, India must prioritize public health interventions that promote physical activity, healthy eating habits, and regular health check-ups to identify and manage these conditions early.
Dr Vikramjeet suggested, "To prevent them, we have to maintain a very healthy diet. Have to maintain bodyweight, no alcohol and avoid smoking. Medications for insulin or thyroid should also be taken into consideration."
The expert added that not getting enough "restorative sleep," which is important for regulating how well your body absorbs nutrients from meals may increase your risk of developing metabolic syndrome.